Ear Hygiene

Swimmer's ear fungal infection

By: Megan Evans

What causes Swimmer’s ear?

 

Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is inflammation caused by water or other substances entering the ear canal.  Debris and water interferes with the lipid layer, a protective coating of the ear. Once the lipid layer is irritated, infection may occur. It is important not to scratch inside your ear because the lipid layer protects the skin, assists in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection from bacteria, fungi, insects and water.

For instance, ear wax (cerumen) is known to reduce the viability of a wide range of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and many variants of Escherichia coli, sometimes by as much as 99%. If you already have swimmer’s ear, avoid getting water in your ear for 5-7 days or until your symptoms clear.

How to prevent Swimmer’s ear:

  • Wear earplugs or a silicone ear cap when swimming and when showering.
  • Avoid getting any type of debris in your ear. Debris such as soap and shampoo may also cause irritation.
  • If your ears are sensitive, opt for external head phones so that you don’t irritate your ear canal.
  • Impacted ear canals can also increase your chance of getting an ear infection.
  • Do not put any sharp objects in your ear and avoid using a Q-tip. Instead, opt for over-the-counter ear cleaning kits or an ear wax vacuum.

How to clean your ear:

Tilt your head to the side and insert a few drops of rubbing alcohol, which will absorb excess water and kill bacteria and fungi. Hold your head to the side for several minutes so that the rubbing alcohol can thoroughly clean your ear. If rubbing alcohol is too harsh, try a 50:50 mixture with white vinegar. Acetic acid, an organic compound found in vinegar, will also kill bacteria and fungi.  

Caution: Consult your doctor prior to using this mixture if you have had ear surgery, an ear infection, or a perforated, ruptured, or punctured eardrum.

 

 

 

What is Strep Throat?

Sometime in your childhood you were probably diagnosed with strep throat. You likely had a fever, a painful sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. Strep throat is often painful but typically doesn’t last much longer than a week.

Our Utah Ear, Nose and Throat doctors regularly diagnose and treat patients who suffer from strep throat. We’ve written the following articles to help you understand strep throat:

  • What is Strep Throat?
  • What are Strep Throat Symptoms?
  • How is Strep Throat Diagnosed?
  • How is Strep Throat Treated?

What is Strep Throat?

Strep throat is not a virus. Strep throat is an infection caused by group A streptococcus bacteria that settles in the throat and often makes the throat suddenly feel sore. Typically, strep throat infections are more painful that a sore throat caused by a virus. In fact, since most sore throats are NOT caused by strep throat, a particularly painful sore throat is a good indication that you may have strep throat.

Read: What are Strep Throat Symptoms?

Strep Throat is Highly Contagious

Whether your strep throat symptoms are mild or severe, strep throat is contagious. That means everyone who comes into contact with someone who has strep throat is at risk of catching strep throat.

Think of strep throat as a person-to-person illness that is typically transmitted through close contact between someone who has strep throat and another individual. Strep is contained within the saliva or nasal secretions (mucus) of the contagious person. When that person coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets fly and people nearby come into close contact with the strep bacteria.

Because strep is shared socially, strep bacteria is often found in settings where many people live and work in close proximity. This may include schools, day care centers, airplanes, public transportation and within the home.

Children and teens between the ages of 5 and 15-years old are the most likely to become infected with strep throat. However, people of all ages are impacted by strep throat. Outbreaks of strep throat increase during the school year and often between late fall and early spring.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Strep Throat is Important

Although strep throat often clears up within a week if left untreated, our ENT doctors recommend you seek diagnosis and treatment for strep because strep can lead to complications such as kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever.

Call the Ear, Nose and Throat Center at 801-328-2522 to set an appointment.

Read: What are Strep Throat Symptoms?

Read: How is Strep Throat Diagnosed?

Read: How is Strep Throat Treated?

Strep Throat Symptoms

A sudden, painful sore throat can be a good indication that you have strep throat. Yet a viral infection and not strep bacteria cause most sore throats. Even more surprising, if you have typical cold symptoms like a stuffy and/or runny nose and a cough, you likely do NOT have strep throat.

The most common signs of strep throat may include:

  • Sudden and severe sore throat: With strep throat, sore throat pain emerges quickly and can be very painful.
  • Difficulty swallowing: It’s normal to feel pain while swallowing when you have a sore throat. But strep throat can make it difficult to swallow even liquids.
  • Fever above 101 degrees: The onset of strep throat is often accompanied by a high fever.
  • White or yellow pus on your tonsils and/or redness on the back of throat: Use a flashlight to illuminate the back of your throat. If you see white or yellow spots on a bright red throat, you may have strep throat.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck: Lymph nodes in your neck will often feel tender and sensitive to the touch when you have strep throat.
  • Lack of congestion, cough and upper-respiratory symptoms: A painful sore throat, minus other cold-like symptoms, can be a good indication that you have strep throat.

The last symptom is important to remember: the more cold symptoms you have, the more likely it is that you DON’T have strep throat.

Strep Throat Symptoms Appear 2 to 5 Days After Exposure

Strep throat symptoms do not appear immediately following contact with someone who has a strep infection. Usually, the signs of strep throat appear two to five days following exposure.

Although strep throat usually goes away within three to seven days following exposure without treatment, you remain contagious for two to three weeks.

Read that again: even though your strep throat symptoms will disappear within a week of infection, unless you are treated with antibiotics, you remain contagious for 14 to 21 days afterwards. That’s why it’s important to seek treatment of strep throat with antibiotics.

Read: How Does the ENT Center Diagnose Strep Throat?

The good news is that most patients are no longer contagious (or less contagious) within 24 hours of starting to use antibiotics to fight strep throat.

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center for Strep Throat Questions

Strep throat is painful and can become serious if left untreated. If you suspect you may have strep throat, contact our ENT doctors in Utah at 801-328-2522 for an appointment.

Read: How the ENT Center Treats Strep Throat

Read: What is Strep Throat?

Read: 5 Tips to Avoid Strep Throat

Strep Throat Diagnosis

There are two ways to diagnose strep throat: a clinical exam and a laboratory test. We’ll cover both options here so you can understand what to expect when you visit an ear, nose and throat doctor.

Our Ear, Nose and Throat center physicians typically perform both the clinical exam and a laboratory test to ensure we accurately diagnose strep throat.

Clinical Strep Throat Exam

A clinical exam begins by looking for common strep throat symptoms such as:

  • A severe sore throat
  • Fever above 101 degrees
  • White or yellow pus on your tonsils and/or redness on the back of your throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
  • Absence of traditional cold symptoms such as cough, congestion or a runny nose

Read: Common strep throat symptoms

Your ENT doctor will typically use a tongue depressor to ensure your throat and tonsils are clearly visible. We’ll also consider the patient’s age—strep throat is most common in patients between the ages of 5 and 15 years old—and the time of year since strep throat infections are more common between late fall and early spring.

Laboratory Strep Throat Tests

If indications for strep throat appear likely following the clinical exam, your ENT doctor will order a laboratory test to confirm a strep infection. The doctor or physician’s assistant will quickly and gently swab the back of your throat and order a rapid strep test. We may also order a throat culture.

  • Rapid Strep Test: The rapid stress test is also known as a rapid antigen detection test. The good news is that the Ear, Nose and Throat Center can confirm a strep throat infection within a few minutes using the rapid stress test.
  • Throat Culture: While the rapid stress test regularly identifies strep throat, it may not detect all cases of strep throat.  In some instances, we may choose to order a throat culture so we can more thoroughly analyze your condition. The downside to a throat culture is that results may not be available for a few days, which is why we typically use the rapid stress test. Your doctor will consider your symptoms following an exam and recommend the appropriate tests to confirm diagnosis.

Next Step: Strep Throat Treatment

Once your ENT physician has completed the exam and ordered the appropriate tests that confirm strep throat, we will prescribe antibiotics to treat strep throat. The good news is that you will no longer be infectious within 24 hours of starting antibiotic treatment and patients start to feel better quickly.

If you have questions about strep throat, please contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center at 801-328-2522 to set an appointment with ENT doctors in Salt Lake City, Park City and Draper, Utah.

Read: How is Strep Throat Treated?

Read: What is Strep Throat?

Read: What are Strep Throat Symptoms?

Read: 5 Tips to Prevent Strep Throat

What is Rhinoplasty?

What is Rhinoplasty?

Nasal surgery or nose surgery is called Rhinoplasty. But you probably know the more common name for nose surgery: a nose job.

Through nose surgery, noses can be made smaller or larger, narrowed or straightened. Our Utah ENT doctors have vast experience enhancing the appearance of noses and correcting nasal deformities. We’ve prepared a set of articles to help answer questions you may have about nose jobs or rhinoplasty.

    • What is a Rhinoplasty?

 

 

 

  • What Happens During a Rhinoplasty?
  • How Can I Prepare for Nose Surgery?
  • How Long Does it Take to Recover from Nose Surgery?
  • How Is a Broken Nose Set and Repaired?

3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

Celebrities aren’t the only people who pursue nose jobs. Chances are good you know someone who has had nose surgery or rhinoplasty. That’s because a well-performed nose job can improve the shape, appearance and proportion of your nose. That, in turn, can improve your looks and enhance self-confidence.
No nose is perfect and there are three major reasons people get a nose job.

  1. Your nose is repaired for medical reasons, for instance, to repair a deviated septum and help improve breathing
  2. Your nose is damaged in an accident
  3. You choose a nose job for cosmetic reasons

Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

Open and Closed Rhinoplasty Surgeries

Before any nose surgery, your surgeon will examine your nose, the skin on your nose, the features of your face, and will discuss your goals and reasons for rhinoplasty with you. Once you commit to a nose job, there are two types of rhinoplasty surgeries: closed rhinoplasty and open rhinoplasty.

Small nasal humps or minor fullness in the tip of the nose can be performed in what is called a “closed” rhinoplasty. All skin incisions are done inside the nostrils, leaving no visible scars. A splint is worn for about a week afterwards. If the septum (the inside part that divides the two halves of the nose) needs straightening, this is usually done at the same time, and the internal splints usually stay in your nose for approximately one week.

More challenging nose surgeries (and most revision nose surgeries) are done with an “open” technique. A small zig-zag cut is made between the two nostrils, and is joined to cuts inside the nostrils that allow the skin of the nose to be lifted up. The cartilage and bone of the nose is exposed, allowing us to make major changes in the tip, the sides and the top of the nose.

Noses can be made smaller or larger, narrowed or straightened. Tips can be made more refined or prominent, raised or lowered. If more fullness is needed, your own cartilage can usually be harvested from your nasal septum, your ear, or even from a rib. Collapsed noses can be corrected using similar techniques.

A Natural Look is Our Goal

We’ve all seen pictures of celebrities with bad nose jobs. Our philosophy is that a nose must look “natural” after surgery. An operated appearance is to be avoided.
Cosmetic nose surgery can correct major deformities, or can correct subtle problems that detract from the overall appearance of the face. The good news is that our Utah rhinoplasty patients are satisfied with their nose surgery.

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center with Rhinoplasty Questions

Call the Ear, Nose and Throat Center at 801-328-2522 to set an appointment with our Utah ENT doctors to discuss if a nose job is right for you.

Read: How Can I Prepare for Nose Surgery?
Read: How Long Does it Take to Recover from Nose Surgery?
Read: How Is a Broken Nose Set and Repaired?
Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

Fix a Broken Nose

Repairing a Broken Nose

Nasal fractures and broken noses in Utah are common. Noses can be injured while playing sports—
baseball, football, rugby, skiing, wrestling and many other activities are common causes of broken noses.
Noses can also become fractured in accidents. And noses can be broken as part of rhinoplasty to help
enhance the look of a patient through cosmetic nasal surgery or the nose.

While a broken nose is painful and produces swelling, our Utah ENT doctors are expert at setting and
treating broken noses. We’ve written this article to help you understand what you can expect following a
broken nose.

Setting a Broken Nose

Broken noses with crooked nasal bones can often be set right in the office after numbing the nose, and this
is not a particularly painful procedure. It must be done within two weeks of the injury, before the bones
begin to set in their new position. If more than two weeks have passed since the injury, we usually have
to wait at least six months to let the bones completely set in their new position, and then perform a formal
rhinoplasty.

What to Expect Following a Broken Nose

If it is necessary to break the nasal bones to straighten the nose or reduce the size, you can expect to have
black eyes for one to two weeks. Fortunately, the swelling in the nose and face starts to go down after about
three days. However, your ENT doctor may prescribe painkillers for the first week.

Read: Recovery from Nose Surgery

We recommend our patients lie low for a week or so to enable their nose to heal. That means you may want
to schedule a few weeks off work to provide time for bruising and swelling to decrease.

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center for Questions about a Broken Nose

If you have a fractured nose or wonder if nose surgery is right for you, please contact the Ear, Nose and
Throat Center at 801-328-2522 for a consultation and treatment. We’ll work with you to diagnose and treat
your condition in the most effective manner that helps you once again breathe easy following a broken
nose.

Recovery from Rhinoplasty

Each year we regularly perform rhinoplasty surgery in Utah. Prior to surgery, ENT doctors will provide specific post-operative instructions that include directions that will help you care for your nose, as well as explain what to expect as you recover.

What to Expect Following a Nose Surgery

Once your cosmetic nose surgery is complete, internal tubes and packing will be placed inside your nose. A splint or bandages to help your nose heal are typically used on the outside of your nose to provide support.

For the first days following surgery, you can expect slight bleeding and mucus to drain from your nose or when the dressing is removed. We commonly use a drip pad under your nose to absorb drainage. This drip pad is a small piece of gauze that is held in place with tape and is easy to remove and replace as needed. Your ENT doctor will provide directions on how often to change the gauze.

If it is necessary to break the nasal bones to straighten the nose or reduce the size, you can expect to have black eyes for one to two weeks. The swelling in the nose and face starts to decrease after about three days.

Read: How Is a Broken Nose Set and Repaired?

Swelling and Resting Following Nose Surgery

After surgery, most people “lie low” for a week or more. To minimize bleeding and swelling and improve your comfort, we recommend bed rest for our patients. We also suggest you rest with your head at a higher elevation than your chest.

All patients react differently to surgery, but gauze and dressings are typically used for one to seven days following surgery. The splint or cast on your nose will also remain in place for about one week.

Pain killers are usually necessary for the first week following nose surgery.

Temporary swelling and black-and-blue discoloration of your eyelids and numbness is common following nose surgery. In most cases, the swelling and numbness will last for two to three weeks. Some people go back to work after one week when the bruising has turned a yellowish color and is fading. Others take two weeks off of work.

In rare instances, swelling can last between six months to a year. We advise our Utah rhinoplasty patients to use ice packs or cold compresses to minimize swelling and pain. Your doctor will provide additional direction and instructions following surgery and at a follow-up appointment.

The nose itself, particularly the tip may remain swollen for several months. It may take a full year before the nose completely settles down, but most of the healing takes place in the first two months.

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center with Rhinoplasty Questions

Our ENT doctors in Salt Lake City, Park City and Draper, Utah are expert at cosmetic nose surgery. Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center at 801-328-2522 to set an appointment with one of our board-certified physicians to discuss questions about nose jobs and nasal surgery.

Read: How Can I Prepare for Nose Surgery?
Read: How Long Does it Take to Recover from Nose Surgery?
Read: How Is a Broken Nose Set and Repaired?
Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

Read: What is a Rhinoplasty?
Read: Recovery from Rhinoplasty
Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

Read: Repairing a Broken Nose

Read: What Happens During a Rhinoplasty?
Read: How Can I Prepare for Nose Surgery?
Read: How Is a Broken Nose Set and Repaired?

About Rhinoplasty Surgery

Our Salt Lake City rhinoplasty patients expect positive outcomes and the Ear, Nose and Throat Center delivers. However, before you choose to have a nose job, it’s important for you to understand what you can expect during nose surgery.

Rhinoplasty is usually performed within the nose. The ENT surgeon will adjust the bone and cartilage beneath your skin. In an closed rhinoplasty, the surgeon makes small incisions inside the nostrils. In an open rhinoplasty, the surgeon will make cuts in the septum between the nostrils. At this point, the surgeon will separate the skin from the underlying bone or cartilage and mucous membranes. This allows your surgeon to cut, trim or augment nasal bone and cartilage.

The size of a nose can be both reduced or increased and shaped and molded during rhinoplasty. The surgeon may use small bits of cartilage harvested from inside your nose or your ear for small procedures. For more complex changes and enhancements, the surgeon may graft bone material into an existing nasal bone to enhance the size and shape of the nasal bone.

Read: What is Rhinoplasty and Reconstructive Nasal Surgery?

Anesthesia Used During Rhinoplasty Procedures

Nose jobs are performed in conjunction with local or general anesthesia. Your doctor will discuss your options before surgery. The following information details the difference between local and general anesthesia.

  • Local anesthesia. You’re probably familiar with local anesthesia from trips to the dentist. With local anesthesia, the doctor will inject medication that numbs pain directly into your nasal tissues. This allows the doctor to focus on your nose without numbing your entire body. The doctor may also use an intravenous line to sedate you during the procedure. Using an IV will make you feel sleepy but will not make you fully go to sleep.
  • General anesthesia. With general anesthesia, medication is administered either through your nose or through an IV placed in a vein in your body with the intention of inducing a state of unconsciousness. The Ear, Nose and Throat Center works directly with licensed anesthesiologists who will constantly monitor your condition and work directly with the ENT doctor to ensure your comfort and safety.

Following nose surgery, you will immediately wheeled into a recovery room where the nursing staff will monitor your condition. In many cases, patients will leave the hospital or surgery center a few hours after surgery (a friend or family member will drive you home). In other cases where the rhinoplasty is performed in a hospital, the patient may spend the evening in the hospital.

Read: Recovery from Rhinoplasty

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center with Rhinoplasty Questions

A rhinoplasty or nose job is a common cosmetic surgery that can correct breathing problems and improve the appearance of your nose. Call the Ear, Nose and Throat Center to learn more about rhinoplasty in Salt Lake City and Draper, Utah.

Read: What is a Rhinoplasty?

Read: Recovery from Rhinoplasty


Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

How to Prepare for Nose Surgery

Rhinoplasty can enhance your appearance and help improve medical issues, which can make it easier to breathe easily through your nose. However, before the Ear, Nose and Throat Center schedules a rhinoplasty, we will meet with you to discuss your expectations and conduct a thorough physical examination. During this meeting we will:

  • Discuss your medical history: We want to understand the medications you are taking, medical conditions you currently have or have had in the past, and any information that can help us determine if a rhinoplasty is a good fit for your needs.
  • Conduct a physical examination: We will perform a thorough medical examination, which may include blood and lab tests. Your ENT doctor will also closely inspect the skin inside and outside your nose to determine if you are a good candidate for rhinoplasty.
  • Shoot photographs of your nose: We will take photos of your nose from a variety of different angles. Your doctor will reference these photos prior to surgery and may use them during surgery for additional guidance and reference. We will also shoot before and after photographs so that you can easily see the nose job results.
  • Discuss your expectations: This is an important discussion because it’s critical for you and your surgeon to understand what is and is not possible in a rhinoplasty. We want to be sure that we understand your motivation for surgery and set clear expectations for the surgical outcome. Consider this candid discussion the roadmap for nose surgery success.

Read: Rhinoplasty and Reconstructive Nasal Surgery

Before your nose job we will encourage you to:

  • Avoid certain medications. For up to two weeks before and after surgery, we will recommend you avoid medications that contain aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) because these medications may increase bleeding. Your ear, nose and throat doctor will provide more detail and direction regarding medications before and after nose surgery.
  • Arrange for help on the day of your surgery. In most cases, a rhinoplasty is an outpatient treatment. That means you will go home within a few hours after your surgery. However, this means that you need to arrange transportation from the surgical center to your home. We also suggest that you ask a friend or family member to stay with you for a few days following surgery to provide assistance. It is not uncommon for patients to experience memory lapses, impaired judgment and slowed reaction time within the first 24 hours following surgery and sedation. A friend or family member can help you during this transition period and increase your comfort as you recover.
  • Stop smoking. Smoking is a bad idea at all times. However, smoking can slow healing following surgery, and we want you to recover quickly from rhinoplasty.

 

Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center for Rhinoplasty in Utah

Rhinoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure and one we regularly perform. Contact the Ear, Nose and Throat Center to schedule rhinoplasty in Utah today. We’ll work with you to assess your situation and, if appropriate, develop a treatment and surgical plan that helps you get the nose you’ve always wanted.

Read: Recovery from Rhinoplasty and Nose Surgery

Read: What is a Rhinoplasty?


Read: 3 Reasons to Get a Nose Job

What is a clinical trial?

A clinical trial is a commissioned research study where people (patients or individuals with specific symptoms) are studied and evaluated by doctors and healthcare providers. The goal of the clinical trial is to explore and validate (or, in some cases, repudiate) new and often better ways to diagnose, prevent and treat a medical condition, disease or sickness.

At the Ear, Nose and Throat Center, we naturally focus on clinical trials that evaluate drugs, medical devices or procedures that address ear, nose and throat conditions. We may also test the efficacy of a treatment or therapy in a clinical trial. In all ENT clinical trials, we closely monitor and guard the safety and privacy of our patients and study participants.

Clinical trials are critically important in the process of improving patient care and procedures.

How to Participate in a Utah Clinical Trial

The Ear, Nose and Throat Center actively recruits our Utah patients to participate in clinical research and trials and we encourage your participation. All participants in a clinical trial are volunteers.
Please contact Holly Featherstone at 801-328-2522 to learn more about current or future Utah clinical trials.

See: Current Ear, Nose and Throat Center Clinical Trials

Why You Should Consider Participating in a Clinical Trial

Participating in an ENT clinical trial is a great way to help others and yourself. As a clinical trial participant, you will gain access to new research treatments before they are available nationwide—typically free of charge. You can also do your part to help others by contributing to the ongoing study of new therapies and treatments.

Clinical Trials Benefit All of Us

Clinical trials are important to develop new treatments and strategies to approach diseases. Many of today’s standard treatments are based on the results of previous clinical trials. In fact, in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration requires approval of new drugs and therapies before they may be used widely. This is an important requirement and one that benefits all health care users in this country. Since clinical trials will help test the efficacy and safety of a new therapy or drug, ongoing research benefits all of us.

Five Types of Clinical Trials

There are essentially five types of clinical trials. The Ear, Nose and Throat Center participates in a wide range of ENT clinical trials and our trial coordinators are happy to answer questions about the goals and purposes of our current studies.

  1. Diagnostic trials help researchers identify effective tests and/or procedures to diagnose a disease or condition.
  2. Screening trials enable researches to understand effective ways to identify and detect specific health conditions or diseases.
  3. Prevention trials are performed to help researchers understand more effective ways to prevent disease or a recurrence of a disease. In a prevention trial, you may be asked to test the effect of vitamins, medicines, vaccines and minerals on your body. In other cases, researchers may ask you to make lifestyle changes and then monitor the impact of those changes on your health and well being.
  4. Treatment trials test a variety of treatments, which may include drug combinations, experimental treatments, or surgical or therapeutical approaches to treat a disease or condition.
  5. Supportive Care or Quality of Life trials focus on ways medical providers can enhance the quality of life for patients with a chronic illness or condition.

Meet the Members of a Clinical Trial Team

Should you choose to participate in an Ear, Nose and Throat research study, you will typically work with two individuals with specific roles: the Principal Investigator and the Research Coordinator.

The Principal Investigator is typically a doctor who designs, develops, conducts and oversees the clinical trial. The principal investigator evaluates patient information and data and helps other doctors manage and participate in the trial.

The Research Coordinator is the primary contact for clinical trial volunteers. He or she directs and coordinates patient care during a clinical trial and can explain your role in the trial, what you can expect during the trial, any side effects from medicines or treatment, how to understand your treatment and trial data and coordination of reimbursement for care and participation.

Four Phases in a Clinical Trial

The overall goal of a clinical trial is to expand understanding of a condition, treatment or procedure. To ensure researchers have adequate time to evaluate and understand the data, clinical trials are conducted in four phases. Each phases focuses on and answers different questions. Our research coordinator can pinpoint the phase of any local clinical trial.

  1. Phase I trials are confined to a small group of people, often between 15 to 80 participants. The goal of the phase 1 trial is to evaluate the safety, side effects and appropriate dosage for an experimental drug or treatment.
  2. Phase II trials expand the scope of the experiment by testing the impact of a drug or treatment on a group of people ranging from 100 to 300 participants to understand the efficacy of the drug or treatment and further validate its safety.
  3. Phase III trials assess the effectiveness of a drug or therapy, monitor side effects and compare the outcomes to commonly used treatments or drugs. This phase expands the scope of the study to a large group of participants, ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 people.
  4. Phase IV trials are conducted once the drug or treatment is approved for use in the larger market and focus on the benefits and risks of the drug, procedure or treatment.

Contact Us with Questions

Thanks for your interest in Ear, Nose and Throat Center Clinical Trials. Please contact Holly Featherstone at 801-328-2522 to learn more about current or future Utah clinical trials.

See: Current Ear, Nose and Throat Center Clinical Trials